Present Perfect Continuous Tense

I have been singing

How do we make the Present Perfect Continuous Tense?

The structure of the present perfect continuous tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb + auxiliary verb + main verb
have
has
been base + ing

Here are some examples of the present perfect continuous tense:

subject auxiliary verb auxiliary verb main verb
+ I have been waiting for one hour.
+ You have been talking too much.
It has not been raining.
We have not been playing football.
? Have you been seeing her?
? Have they been doing their homework?

Contractions

When we use the present perfect continuous tense in speaking, we often contract the subject and the first auxiliary. We also sometimes do this in informal writing.

I have been I’ve been
You have been You’ve been
He has been
She has been
It has been
John has been
The car has been
He’s been
She’s been
It’s been
John’s been
The car’s been
We have been We’ve been
They have been They’ve been

Here are some examples:

  • I’ve been reading.
  • The car’s been giving trouble.
  • We’ve been playing tennis for two hours.

How do we use the Present Perfect Continuous Tense?

This tense is called the present perfect continuous tense. There is usually a connection with the present or now. There are basically two uses for the present perfect continuous tense:

1. An action that has just stopped or recently stopped

We use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about an action that started in the past and stopped recently. There is usually a result now.

I’m tired because I’ve been running.
past present future

!!!
Recent action. Result now.
  • I’m tired [now] because I‘ve been running.
  • Why is the grass wet [now]? Has it been raining?
  • You don’t understand [now] because you haven’t been listening.

2. An action continuing up to now

We use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about an action that started in the past and is continuing now. This is often used with for or since.

I have been reading for 2 hours.
past present future

Action started in past. Action is continuing now.
  • I have been reading for 2 hours. [I am still reading now.]
  • We‘ve been studying since 9 o’clock. [We’re still studying now.]
  • How long have you been learning English? [You are still learning now.]
  • We have not been smoking. [And we are not smoking now.]

For and Since with Present Perfect Continuous Tense

We often use for and since with the present perfect tense.

  • We use for to talk about a period of time – 5 minutes, 2 weeks, 6 years.
  • We use since to talk about a point in past time – 9 o’clock, 1st January, Monday.
for since
a period of time a point in past time

x
20 minutes 6.15pm
three days Monday
6 months January
4 years 1994
2 centuries 1800
a long time I left school
ever the beginning of time
etc etc

Here are some examples:

  • I have been studying for 3 hours.
  • I have been watching TV since 7pm.
  • Tara hasn’t been feeling well for 2 weeks.
  • Tara hasn’t been visiting us since March.
  • He has been playing football for a long time.
  • He has been living in Bangkok since he left school.
For can be used with all tenses. Since is usually used with perfect tenses only.

Now check your understanding »

หลักการใช้ Present Perfect Continuous Tense (ปัจจุบันกาลสมบูรณ์ต่อเนื่อง) ในภาษาอังกฤษ

รูปแบบของ Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Subject + has/have + been + V.-ing

หลักการใช้ Present Perfect Continuous Tense

  1. ใช้กับเหตุการณ์ที่ เกิดขึ้นในอดีตต่อเนื่องมายังปัจจุบัน และยังคงดำเนินต่อไปอีกในอนาคต โดยใช้กับคำว่า since และ for เช่น
She has been sitting here for an hour.
(เธอนั่งอยู่ตรงนี้มาเป็นเวลาชั่วโมงหนึ่งแล้ว)
  1. คำกริยาที่ใช้กับ Present Perfect Continuous Tense นั้น จะต้องเป็นคำกริยาที่แสดงถึงความต่อเนื่อง หรือ กริยาที่แสดงถึงการกระทำที่นาน (long action) เท่านั้น เช่น play, look, watch, learn, live, wait, eat และอื่นๆ โดยไม่สามารถใช้กับกริยาที่ไม่แสดงถึงความต่อเนื่อง หรือ กริยาที่แสดงถึงการกระทำที่จบในทันทีได้ เช่น stop, prefer, arrive เป็นต้น เช่น
I have been playing games since afternoon.
(ฉันเล่นเกมส์มาตั้งแต่ตอนบ่าย)
  1. Present Perfect Continuous Tense อาจนำมาใช้ได้กับเหตุการณ์ที่ สิ้นสุดลงแล้ว แต่ส่งผลมายังปัจจุบัน เช่น
You look tired. Have you been sleeping properly?
(คุณดูเหนื่อยจัง คุณได้นอนหลับมาเพียงพอหรือเปล่า)
  1. Present Perfect Continuous Tense จะ เน้นถึงความต่อเนื่องของการกระทำ (Continuity of action) มากกว่า Present Perfect Tense

วิธีการสร้างประโยค Present Perfect Continuous Tense

โครงสร้าง
Subject + has/have + been + V.-ing

ประโยคบอกเล่า

I / You / We / They have been working in the office.
He / She / It has been watching the television.
โครงสร้าง
Subject + has/have + not + been + V.-ing

ประโยคปฏิเสธ

I / You / We / They have not been working in the office.
He / She / It has not been watching the television.
โครงสร้าง
Has/Have + Subject + been + V.-ing?

ประโยคคำถาม

Have I / you / we / they been working in the office?
Has he / she / it been watching the television?
ครงสร้าง
Who/What/Where/When/Why/How + has/have + Subject + been + V.-ing?

ประโยคคำถาม
Wh-

Who

have I / you / we / they been talking to?

Where

has he / she / it been sleeping?
*คำปฏิเสธรูปย่อของ has/have not คือ hasn’t และ haven’t